Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus. Giangaleazzo Viscontiwho ruled the city from towas renowned both for his cruelty and for his abilities, and set about building an empire in Northern Italy.
The 10th century also saw the production of a large encyclopaedia cum dictionary, formerly thought to have been the work of one Suidas, but now known to have been called the Suda, from a Byzantine Greek word for fortress. Petrarch poring over a Homer he could not understand, and Boccaccio in his maturity learning Greek, in order that he might drink from the well-head of poetic inspiration, are the heroes of this period.
Usually the mixture would be stored in heated, pressurised barrels and projected through the tube by some sort of pump, operators being protected behind large iron shields. There was no standardization in the Renaissance artillery corps, each cannon being made by an independent contractor.
With the printing of books initiated in Venice by Aldus Manutius, an increasing number of works began to be published in the Italian vernacular, in addition to the flood of Latin and Greek texts that constituted the mainstream of the Italian Renaissance. What this meant was that any regularization of government institutions and practices on a national scale was still centuries away.
Italian Renaissance View of Florencebirthplace of the Renaissance Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th-century Florencein particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri — and Petrarch —as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone — Manuscripts were worshipped by these men, just as the reliques of the Holy Land had been adored by their great-grandfathers.
InFrancesco Sforza came to power in Milan and rapidly transformed that still medieval city into a major center of art and learning that drew Leone Battista Alberti. The first two or three decades of the fifteenth century saw the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence, particularly in Florence.
Theodore —was once thought to have introduced the new script—and indeed the monastery had a flourishing scriptorium—but this conjecture is by no means certain. There was a growing awareness among various peoples that there were factors, such as language and culture, making them unique as nations.
The guesses of the ancients stimulated the exertions of the moderns. At the same time the Bible, in its original tongues, was rediscovered. Sculptors and painters combined with architects to cut the arts loose from their connection with the Church by introducing a spirit and a sentiment alien to Christianity.
From Fontainebleau, the new styles, transformed by Mannerismbrought the Renaissance to Antwerpand then throughout Northern Europe.
In this way the painters rose above the ancient symbols and brought heaven down to earth. Epidemics ravaged cities, particularly children. The evolution has not been completed. Paradoxically, some of these disasters would help establish the Renaissance. He took a similar view of tragedy, which he believed effected a purification katharsis of the emotions upon which it played.
Next comes the age of acquisition and of libraries. Behind stretched the centuries of mediaevalism, intellectually barren and inert. However, the Renaissance obsession with classical purity saw Latin revert to its classical form and its natural evolution halted.
The source for these works expanded beyond works of theology and towards the pre-Christian eras of Imperial Rome and Ancient Greece.
A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" Oration on the Dignity of Man, which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason.
He was the foremost writer of sonnets in Italian, and translations of his work into English by Thomas Wyatt established the sonnet form in that country, where it was employed by William Shakespeare and countless other poets.
The mental condition of the Middle Ages was one of ignorant prostration before the idols of the Church - dogma and authority and scholasticism. In most city-republics there was a small clique with a camaraderie and rivalry produced by a very small elite.
Marxist historians view the Renaissance as a pseudo-revolution with the changes in art, literature, and philosophy affecting only a tiny minority of the very wealthy and powerful while life for the great mass of the European population was unchanged from the Middle Ages. University of California Press, From the 9th century must date the invention of a new cursive script, the Byzantine minuscule, which was in its early forms the most elegant that the Greeks ever invented.
His pupil, John Italuswas anathematized by the ecclesiastical authorities for allowing Platonism to contaminate his Christianity. At all events the Renaissance was heralded through the recovery by Italian scholars of Greek and Roman classical literature.
Thus it makes sense to adopt a civic theory of the Renaissance rather than a great man theory. In Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio Italy recovered the consciousness of intellectual liberty. Florentine Painting and Its Social Background.
Florence remained a republic untiltraditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during the intervals after and The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the fourteenth century to aboutmarking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
The word renaissance in French, (rinascimento in Italian) literally. Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe explores the history of gunpowder in Europe from the thirteenth century, when it was first imported from China, to the sixteenth century, as firearms became central to the conduct of war.
Bridging the fields of military history and the history of technology―and challenging past assumptions about. Social and Economic Changes During the Renaissance.
Cities grew and prospered during the Renaissance and rulers learned to tax the people. Trade grew between cities/states and other countries. The Italian Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento [rinaʃʃiˈmento]) was a period of European history that began in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century (), marking the transition from the Medieval period to killarney10mile.com French word renaissance (Rinascimento in Italian) means "Rebirth" and defines the period as one of cultural.
Overview. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern killarney10mile.coming in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Medieval Warfare - open battles and castle sieges, armour, weapons and military technology of the Middle Ages.Download