Singer touts himself as having "published more than peer-reviewed scientific papers over the course of his career". If the Kigali Amendment becomes binding, the hunt will begin for a replacement for HFCs and their uses in industry.
Ozone is removed when an oxygen atom and an ozone molecule "recombine" to form two oxygen molecules, i.
In such conditions the ice crystals of the cloud provide a suitable surface for conversion of unreactive chlorine compounds into reactive chlorine compounds, which can deplete ozone easily. Increased UV-B rays reduce levels of plankton in the oceans and subsequently diminish fish stocks.
The nearly countries that signed the original Montreal Protocol have unanimously agreed that the climate risks posed by HFCs are too significant to ignore. While stratospheric ozone which protects us from the sun is good, there is also ozone produced near the ground from sunlight interacting with atmospheric pollution in cities that is bad for human health.
The rigors of peer-review are such that a large percentage of submitted articles never get published in the scientific literature. The area of each circle represents the global warming potential, calculated for a year time horizon.
A dobson unit is the most basic measure used in ozone research. The citation from the Nobel committee credited them with helping to deliver the Earth from a potential environmental disaster. The editor of the journal reviews the article, and sends copies to three scientists who are experts in the field.
A year earlier, Richard Stolarski and Ralph Cicerone at the University of Michigan had shown that Cl is even more efficient than NO at catalyzing the destruction of ozone.
Ozone is a special form of oxygen, made up of three oxygen atoms rather than the usual two oxygen atoms. These anonymous reviewers send their comments on errors that need correcting, omissions that need addressing, etc, back to the journal editor, who then asks the author to submit a revised article addressing the concerns of the reviewers.
The ozone cycle Global monthly average total ozone amount Lowest value of ozone measured by TOMS each year in the ozone hole A single chlorine atom would continuously destroy ozone thus a catalyst for up to two years the time scale for transport back down to the troposphere were it not for reactions that remove them from this cycle by forming reservoir species such as hydrogen chloride HCl and chlorine nitrate ClONO 2.
Decreases in the ozone level of up to 10 percent have been reported in New Zealand in the month following the breakup of the Antarctic ozone hole,  with ultraviolet-B radiation intensities increasing by more than 15 percent since the s.
If the high levels of depletion seen in the ozone hole were to be common across the globe, the effects could be substantially more dramatic. Crutzen showed that nitrous oxide lives long enough to reach the stratosphere, where it is converted into NO.
Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs also known as Freon are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. The Montreal and Vienna conventions were installed long before a scientific consensus was established or important uncertainties in the science field were being resolved.
These then react with the ozone molecules, resulting in their removal. HFCs, which contain no chlorine or bromine, do not contribute at all to ozone depletion although they are potent greenhouse gases.
So far, ozone depletion in most locations has been typically a few percent and, as noted above, no direct evidence of health damage is available in most latitudes. A study in Science magazine Newman, concluded, "There is no credible evidence for an ozone hole in This is normally expressed in Dobson units ; abbreviated as "DU".
Singer calls a "key research publication"has been cited exactly zero times, as of for comparison, Dr. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. Ozone is formed in the stratosphere when oxygen molecules photodissociate after intaking ultraviolet photons.
Theories or speculation about this are not sufficient. The Cl-catalyzed ozone depletion can take place in the gas phase, but it is dramatically enhanced in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds PSCs. The protocol mandated a time frame to completely abolish CFCs.
Hydrocarbons pose safety risks as they are highly flammable and may also adversely affect air quality. However, these were initially rejected as unreasonable by data quality control algorithms they were filtered out as errors since the values were unexpectedly low ; the ozone hole was detected only in satellite data when the raw data was reprocessed following evidence of ozone depletion in in situ observations.
NASA  The Antarctic ozone hole is an area of the Antarctic stratosphere in which the recent ozone levels have dropped to as low as 33 percent of their pre values. A single chlorine atom is able to react with an average ofozone molecules before it is removed from the catalytic cycle.
The concentrations of the source gases CFCs and related compounds and the chlorine reservoir species HCl and ClONO 2 were measured throughout the stratosphere, and demonstrated that CFCs were indeed the major source of stratospheric chlorine, and that nearly all of the CFCs emitted would eventually reach the stratosphere.
It causes greater incidences of skin cancer and cataract of the eye, with children being particularly vulnerable.
The skeptics primarily published in non-peer-reviewed newspapers, magazines, books, and think tank publications.While there’s no ‘hole’ in the ozone layer as such (ozone is a gas and it is technically not possible to create a hole in it), its depletion in many regions has been so severe that it has come to be known as, for instance, the ‘Antarctic Ozone Hole’.
The ozone layer has since begun to recover somewhat as a result of these efforts, but there is some science which now suggests that the major volcanic eruptions (mainly El Chichon in and and Mt. Pinatubo in ) which have occurred since we started monitoring ozone with satellites in the late 's, could have also contributed to the.
The Skeptics vs. the Ozone Hole. could cause serious harm to Earth's protective ozone layer (Molina and Rowland, ).
he general way to feel certain that you're getting good science is. Hydrofluorocarbons saved the ozone layer, so why are we banning them? we will avoid their impacts before it is too late. or HFCs, is the fastest way to reduce global warming. The United. Ozone layer thickness is expressed in terms of Dobson units, which measure what its physical thickness would be if compressed in the Earth's atmosphere.
In those terms, it's very thin indeed. A normal range is to Dobson units, which translates to an eighth of an inch-basically two stacked pennies. The ozone layer outside the Polar regions is projected to recover to its pre levels some time before the middle of this century.
In contrast, the springtime ozone hole over the Antarctic is expected to recover much later.".Download