How can changes in the age structure of a human population increase the spread of infectious disease

For example, the West Nile Virus is spread by mosquitoes the vector. Additionally, as global temperatures increase, so do the conditions under which many of these carriers flourish. Previous article in issue. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership.

The first World Health Day was celebrated inback when world population was 2. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks.

The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures.

An outbreak in one region that would have otherwise been contained can move into other uninfected regions when infected people travel or relocate to these areas.

Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level.

Population density and urbanization — Diseases spread more quickly among people who live in close proximity to each other. The focus was on the spread of diseases around the globe.

As the climate changes, the disease carrying mosquitoes are able to move into regions where they previously could not survive, thus affecting new areas.

We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Migration and global travel — As it becomes more common for people to travel throughout the world, it also becomes easier for diseases to travel with them.

With more people living in dense conditions, there is more frequent contact between more individuals, allowing disease transmission to easily occur. Environmental degradation — Environmental challenges such as changing climate, can lead to the spreading of diseases, especially those that are vector-borne or carried by a host.

By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. Under a Creative Commons license Abstract The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood.Migration may also increase vulnerability to disease.

Infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS have had a large impact on demographic trends, altering the Why PoPulation Matters to InfectIous dIseases and HIV/aIds Source: World Health Organization (WHO).

leaving an age structure with a large base of. Ininfectious disease was the leading cause of death in the world and the U.S., but since the 's, rates of death from infectious disease have been greatly reduced.

Today only 7% of deaths in the U.S. and 30% of deaths. Disease is spread more quickly between individuals who live in close proximity, such as in a nesting colony of penguins.

Disease can be considered a: a) density-dependent factor. b) factor that causes a greater birth rate than death rate. c) exponential growth factor.

d) factor that increases carrying capacity. e) density-independent factor. defining population size & structure & their variation across time & space.

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Demographics & disease Spread of infectious &. Modern society human populations at risk of disease pandemics spread of pathogens and their vectors, which include the advances in modern transport via the air, land and sea, the increase in population size and density, global change and climate change.

7 Age Structure of Populations 8 The U.S. Baby Boom 9 Looking Ahead 11 A. How Can Changes In The Age Structure Of A Human Population Increase The Spread Of Infectious Diseases  Modern society human populations at risk of disease pandemics Sandra Mankarios Word count: The qualities in which humans in modern day society live have increased the potential risks of the transmission of.

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How can changes in the age structure of a human population increase the spread of infectious disease
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